Acute and chronic respiratory infections
Respiratory made in our respiratory tract, not only oxygen, but many particles contained in the ambient air. These include contaminants and pathogens that cause respiratory infections.
Infections of the respiratory tract
Our airways are exposed in the daily life of different loads. According occurs in the type, intensity and duration of exposure, so that rapid respiratory diseases. Respiratory infections are respiratory diseases that have been transmitted by pathogenic agents such as viruses, bacteria and fungal spores. ARI particularly widespread.
The airway cleaning system
Full breathing apparatus are not defenseless against external shocks. The immune system, for example, can kill pathogens. In addition to protecting virtually all lined airway mucosa in the respiratory system. It covers the nose and throat, and all the bronchial system.
Acts mucous membranes to clean as a kind of power over transported penetrating particles, pathogens and pollutants airway. The graph on the right shows the cross section of a bronchus, and the structure of the lining:The case presented goblet called watery mucus cells (shown in light blue graph) and flows along the inner bronchial wall.For mucous transport contaminants that invade the epithelium (in purple graphics) to adhere responsible. It covers the mucous membrane with a similar structure carpet-. Millions of mobile fringes which pushes the mucus film on a conveyor belt in the direction of the neck
From there the mucus is swallowed into the stomach, or carried by the nose outwardly.
How respiratory infections?
When we inhale thousands of hot, dry air in winter, the suffering of our mucous membranes: dry faster and are therefore more susceptible to harmful influences. Moreover, when the cold weakens our immune system, viral or bacterial pathogens have an easy life. It ends in the respiratory tract and multiply rapidly.
Other factors that cause most likely acute infection:
Frequent respiratory infections
physical exhaustion and stress
Respiratory allergic reactions
frequent contact with respiratory distress contaminants (eg at work)
Once infected by pathogens mucosa reacts with a protective reaction: They were lit, swells and produces mucus to eliminate the pathogen. Even as acute infectious heard talk in airway protection mechanisms.
Ultimately, it comes with a lung infection, but a system overload cleaning, which can be acute or chronic. add allergic reactions that usually occur in continuous loads of chronic infection.
Acute respiratory infections
Acute infectious generally appear 1-2 weeks after alone again and may affect the coating of the different areas. Depending on the affected area several subtypes of respiratory infections can be defined:
The upper and lower respiratory tract
Respiratory infections of the upper airways
The inflammation of the nasal mucosa (rhinitis)
inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis)
middle ear (otitis media)
respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract
Sore throat (pharyngitis)
bronchial inflammation (bronchitis)
Inflammation of the alveoli (alveolitis)
Pneumonia (inflammation of lung tissue = pneumonia)
In general, however, a respiratory infection relates to the same plurality of regions. The name is then selected based on each affected area.
Chronic respiratory infections
It is a constantly present respiratory disease, respiratory infections can be chronic. Chronic respiratory tract infection if symptoms or repeat little or no decomposition.
Chronic infections of the upper respiratory tract
In the upper respiratory tract, it is mostly various forms of chronic sinusitis, many patients go to work. They suffer from recurrent respiratory infections in the sinuses of the nose, they often have headaches and often feel tired or repelled infectionThe allergic respiratory causes are often allergic or anatomical in nature. Allergies -. For example, pollen (hay fever) – again can lead to respiratory infections in the sinuses and permanently maintain the distance to the patient. But the bottlenecks in the breast input interrupt the natural flow of mucus and quickly lead to the spread of pathogens.In chronic infections of the upper respiratory tract, there is always the risk of expansion of inflammation in the lower airways. If the mucus, which can no longer flow through the nose, which often leads to the so-called postnasal drip syndrome. This mucus neck phenomenon flows down into the bronchi and also here in the development of chronic infection of the lower respiratory tract to be involved.
Chronic infections of the lower respiratory tract
In the lower respiratory tract is bronchitis, the most common form of the disease. Here, the swell of the mucous in the bronchi and there is increased mucus production, which causes coughing tower. Chronic bronchitis is especially if other infection pathogens charges airways more. This may for example be a contaminant in the workplace.Smoking as a cause of respiratory infectionsIn most cases occurs, however, chronic bronchitis in smokers. The toxins from the smoke in the respiratory tract, damage the epithelium. These pathogens facilitating permanent respiratory infection, so that the symptoms and not disintegrate. As the disease progresses, a more viscous mucus is produced, the phenomenon known smoking causes coughing form of chronic bronchitis includes not least the risk of COPD, chronic obstructive bronchitis move. It is characterized primarily by progressive narrowing of the airways.