Erythrocytes, or red blood cells have an area that is mostly a chance. In principle, the structure of the surface of a protein and carbohydrates with different surface antigens. Aglutinogen.Huge figures mentioned surface antigen, more than 700 documents. These surface antigens bind to the antibody, when combined with it, leading to Agglutination and haemolysis of erythrocytes. These antibodies are called agglutinins. Earlier this is not known, as many recipients of blood donors to participate, the abnormalities that lead to death. In 1901, Australian scientist Karl Landsteiner finally implemented a series of experiments and found that the classification of blood is now generally accepted that Alexander S.Wienner Rh ABO system system.Furthermore 1923 Karl Landsteiner and his colleagues.
Basic ABO and Rh classification system is the same, namely, the presentation of surface antigens on erythrocytes contained. In our body has aglutinogen and erythrocyte agglutinin Allah made differently not to cause autolysis.
ABO blood group
For the ABO system, the details are as follows:
Has a aglutinogen and anti-B agglutinin: • Blood type A
- Blood type B: B and have aglutinogen anti-A agglutinin
- AB blood group A and B has aglutinogen, and not have aglutininas
- Blood type O: no aglutinogen and aglutininnya anti-A and anti-B
For ABO, aglutininnya is an Ig-M antibody. The molecular structure is relatively large. So the mother and her unborn child, will not happen inkompatibiliti ABO fetus or mother since the Ig antibodies M fetus or mother is not the placenta happens because of the larger size.
ABO Aglutiongen is passed genetically from parent to Mendelian laws. ABO system is controlled by a gene consisting of three types of alleles I A, I B and 0, where I A and B is the dominant allele. The details are as follows:
- A group of Blood, I have the A I A or I gene A I 0
- Blood Group B: Gen I B I B or I B I 0
- Blood Group AB: Gen I A I B
- Blood type O: Gen I 0 I 0
Blood type A have now been divided into two groups on the basis of gene mutations, namely A1 and A2. A1 is a group A, the antigen A is strongly connected with the anti-A antibodies to comment, while A2, group A weak antigen anti-A are reacted with the antibody A, so that if the test antisera suspected blood group (the antibodies produced) often or as a group, or B if AB. Therefore, anti-AB antisera to differentiate the two.
Rhesus blood group
For the Rhesus system, classification divides into two parts, positive or negative.
- positive Rh with Rh on eritrositnya aglutinogen without aglutininas anti-Rh / anti-D.
- Rhesus negative: not aglutinogen Rh, but 90% of people are anti-Rh / anti-D agglutinins.
The principle is the same as the ABO, but this or anti-D antibodies Rh classification class IgG large antibodies is relatively small and can be obtained through the blood placental barrier, so that the occurrence of inconsistency Rhnya in mothers with a fetus is negative , Rh positive (fetal erythroblastosis). However, knowledge of these antibodies in response to exposure to Rh antigen for the second time, so hemolytic disease of the small comes, create negative mothers in the second fetus Rh.