Respiratory infections or respiratory infections are infections that invade the human respiratory system.
Respiratory infection – alodokter
This condition can be caused by viruses or bacteria. There are two types of infection in the human respiratory tract, namely:
The infection of the upper respiratory tract or respiratory tract infection (URI / URTI), which includes the nasal cavity, sinuses (air-filled cavities found around the cheeks, nose and eyes), throat (behind the nose and mouth), and larynx (base collar). These infections can lead to disease colds, sinus infections or sinusitis, tonsillitis, sore throat, inflammation of the vocal cords or laryngitis and flu.
The infection of the lower respiratory tract or lower respiratory infections (LRI / LRTI), which covers the trachea (windpipe), bronchi, branchlets and lungs. These infections can lead to diseases such as inflammation of the bronchi or bronchitis, bronchiolitis, influenza, tuberculosis and pneumonia.
The cases of respiratory infections is most common in adults and children are cold. Respiratory infections can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact so important to know what are the causes, symptoms and treatment of infection of the disease.
Because respiratory infections
Panting infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria or other organisms. Secondary bacterial infections can occur with infections of the upper airway or down in patients.
Respiratory infections can be spread through the air or touch. You can get while breathing air contains infection splashing a sneezing or coughing patient. The infection can also be transmitted when the nose or eyes touched and touches the surface of an object, then press the other is the object. Besides accommodation, the transmission of respiratory infections often that the level of cleanliness are maintained as much as possible in this area in public institutions such as schools and kindergartens.
These are the types of respiratory infections and viruses that cause.
Upper respiratory tract infections, most of these cases is caused by a coronavirus and rhinovirus infection. Other viruses that can contribute to infections of the upper respiratory tract, adenovirus, Coxsackie virus, and paramyxovirus are myxo- (parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus).
infections of the lower respiratory tract caused by bacteria and viruses caused. The viruses that cause respiratory infections like influenza virus A, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), the varicella zoster virus (VZV) or measles and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). These viruses are the cause of most cases of hospitalization in patients with children. In addition to viruses, bacteria and respiratory infections lead. Some bacteria H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, various anaerobic bacteria, and type of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterial infection is a bacterium, most cases of pneumonia in patients with respiratory infections contribute. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria can also infect the lower respiratory tract and cause tuberculosis.
Agencies, namely, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, AIDS pneumoniae and Coxiella burnetii no classification also cause infection of the airways.
Children are very susceptible to respiratory infections and viruses are generally more likely to stay in their body. Indeed, the immune system of children who have not been perfect.
The symptoms of a respiratory tract infection
The symptoms of respiratory tract infections are the most common cough. However, many different symptoms can also accompany each respiratory infections, such as:
The infection of the upper respiratory tract, usually have symptoms such as nasal profusion, runny nose, sneezing, cough, muscle aches and sore throat. Other symptoms that is the loss of the sense of smell and taste may occur, the pressure in the ear, eye pain and mild fever.
infections of the lower respiratory tract may have symptoms such as cough with expectoration, they increased the rhythm of breath, wheezing or shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing. Other symptoms that may occur is a recurrent fever, difficulty eating, and lack of sleep among infants and children.
Observe other symptoms are a cough that lasts for weeks, increasing his chest pain, weight loss, coughing up blood, which can cause pneumonia or pneumonia. Consult a doctor to confirm the diagnosis and medical treatment.
The diagnosis of infection of the respiratory tract
It also appears to notice symptoms such as fever, diagnosis of respiratory infections can be done through research and monitoring of the patient’s physical condition. Your doctor can measure the level of oxygen in the blood and monitor or perform pulse oximetry. This method is useful to know if a person has taken a respiratory disorder, the degree of oxygen saturation. For example, in the state of the pneumonia, the oxygen saturation values as high as 95 percent or less.
The doctor will also observe and respiratory rate by age, by the movement of the chest include breathing, or TST, the risk of tuberculosis, a chest X-ray, urine tests to determine, to a blood test to diagnose infections breathing to confirm.
The treatment of respiratory infections
Most cases of respiratory infections can be treated at home. For example, with painkillers, which can be bought freely as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, or just multiplied by rest and fluid intake. Treatment Depends on symptoms of infections of the upper airway is a moderate reduction. cure infections of the upper respiratory tract usually within 1-2 weeks. In other cases of respiratory infection, antibiotic treatment is recommended caused by bacteria, treat.
For home care infections of upper respiratory tract, they can be treated with cough or a mixture of honey and lemon. Rubs finishes or topical gel can help reduce nasal congestion in infants and children from three months to ease. Most supplements and remedies can be used as an alternative treatment, but it is advisable to consult a doctor. They are also recommended, no other method for processing without the knowledge and consent of the doctor.
In patients with lower respiratory tract infection, such as pneumonia, most can be treated by an ambulatory treatment or with antibiotics. Also bronchitis patients due to viral infection, is still preserved and allowed to care at home. Antibiotics are used to treat the disease and the patient’s physical response can be adjusted. An antibiotic that is friendly to people with amoxicillin children. However, this decision must be based on a medical diagnosis, so that the possibility remains, the patient can be considered as an inpatient. This option is taken, especially when other antibiotics can not function optimally for people with children.
In the state of respiratory tract infection, call your doctor immediately if you have other associated conditions, such as:
He has heart disease, liver, lungs or kidneys before suffering from respiratory diseases.
have symptoms of pneumonia, such as mucus with hemoptysis
(Chronic) a long-term lung disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
suffering from bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis
They have a weakened immune system or lose weight,
a condition that affects the nervous system such as multiple sclerosis
a cough that lasts more than three weeks
There are chest pain
there is a lump in the throat
Infection Complications Respiratory
Respiratory infections are treated immediately, it can lead to complications or lead to secondary bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract. For people with children, infections of the upper respiratory tract can become pneumonia, bronchitis and inflammation of the larynx and trachea, making it difficult to breathe. Asthma can be worse, and people at risk of chronic lung disease is more difficult to handle.
The infection of the lower respiratory tract should be treated thoroughly to avoid the appearance of complications such as lung abscess, lung failure, hypoxia and death in patients. Consult your doctor if you have a history of heart failure or under treatment for other diseases simultaneously.
Prevention of respiratory infections
Start the habit of cleanliness and health for themselves and the environment is the first step in the prevention of respiratory infections is effective. Habits such as washing hands, wearing gloves and using a mask to help reduce transmission of the disease. Patients can minimize contact with others to prevent the spread of respiratory infections, especially among children. Use a towel and are not suited for others.
Vaccination can be performed in patients with infections of the lower respiratory tract, including pulmonary disease or heart disease at the same time. Stop smoking if you are a smoker, because they increase the risk of respiratory infections in children.