As the kidneys?
A healthy person has two kidneys that look like large buttons. Kidneys are located on both sides of the column at the lower end of the rib cage.
Each kidney is about the size of a bar of soap or hand of the wearer. Its weight is 135-150 grams. The notched edge of the kidney is headed in the direction of the spine inside. The center of the depression of the ureter (ureter) leaves the kidney and nerves, blood and lymph vessels and lead to the inside. Each kidney is surrounded by three fatty case or connective tissue, called the renal capsule. These covers prevent renal stable to protect against external damage and to anchor into the surrounding tissue.
The kidney is surrounded by a thin outer shell. There are about 2.4 million renal corpuscles, where urine is produced in it. In the kidney is the renal medulla. Darin perform blood vessels and tubules through which urine from the pelvis into the ureter and the bladder.
Graphic: longitudinal section of the kidney
Kidneys are the body treatment options: produce urine and therefore wastes that are formed in the body or obtained from the diet. These are, for example, ammonia and urea, which. From protein degradation Moreover, the body of urine drug, medication or toxins can have.
In addition to urine production by the kidney have other important functions: it controls the water balance, maintaining the water or excreted in urine. When the kidneys retain water, there is more fluid, the blood vessels. Therefore, the amount of blood and the pressure increases in the blood increases. vaginal kidneys more water, the amount of blood decreases, blood pressure decreases. In addition, certain cells of the kidney, the protein of renin. This enzyme can also raise blood pressure.
The kidneys also maintain the acidity (pH by measurement) of blood in equilibrium. So be sure that the blood is not too bitter, not too easy. They also offer two important hormones: erythropoietin and calcitriol. Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D, and among others, the amount of calcium in the body. Erythropoietin promotes the formation of red blood cells. Not enough sugar (glucose) in the blood, kidney itself can produce sugar glutamine, an amino acid and release into the blood.
In each kidney – if small cap – a pyramidal structure: the adrenal gland. The adrenals are so named because they sit in the kidneys. However, their functions are very different from those of the kidneys: These are glands that produce several important hormones, called adrenal hormones.