Complex diseases and musculoskeletal biomechanics overload (acronym “DMS”) are the most common work-related diseases, one of the main causes of lower forms of the disease in many workplaces, with a serious impact and negative on the commercial effectiveness and public finance, healthcare costs and resulting pension. the magnitude of the problem, according to EU estimates to better identify nearly 25 percent of workers complain of backache, and a slightly smaller percentage (23 percent) report muscle pain of various types . A situation in which not only occur when the conditions, procedures and bad work practices: about 62 percent of workers takes repetitive tasks with their hands or arms to a quarter of the working time; the work of 46 percent in painful or tiring positions; carries 35 percent or heavy loads.However operation, DMS is a largely preventable risk to change without special charges the company without work organization. The employer and the employees themselves, can help prevent or at least minimize, most of these problems, and taking into account the rules on health and safety, as well as so-called “best practices “and” best practice standards “often intuitive and easy to use common sense but.” what they are the “DMS, and what are the main risk factors for work are?
Regulatory and organizational framework
From the perspective of a regulator, the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in the working conditions 2008.81 settlement based on April 9, after which:
- The employer must assess all risks in the company to carry out, including manual handling of loads associated with the risk of repetitive motion, posture, etc.
- on the basis of this assessment, the employer must take (technical, organizational, process, etc.) measures to overcome these risks or at least minimize, also in line with the development of all necessary measures technology;
- the employer must “inform, educate and educate” to correct the workers against practices and risk reduction procedures and safety, including work;
- The employer must “require” discipline that workers with the procedures and working methods established by the Company are also and above all for safety;
- The employer has the worker monitoring of adequate and regular health, it must be subjected to the risks of the business. the main musculoskeletal disorders many of the most common disorders of the musculoskeletal system – back pain, neck pain, pain in the arms and so on – Derive necessarily “aging. In many cases, however, which are caused or exacerbated by default and / or accepted within two working positions, both movements work every day. These disorders are often muscle fatigue, inflammation of the tendons or intervertebral disc degeneration. Similarly, certain diseases of the circulatory system (eg, swelling of the legs, varicose veins, etc.) may have incorrect movements are static postures and / or extended and. The most common disorders – reported in detail below – are due to the weight of sensation and / or discomfort, numbness, tingling, numbness and support of the following districts of pain: • the spine (neck and back); • upper extremities (shoulders, arms and hands); • lower extremities (legs and feet). back (spine) by the term “backbone” refers to the body of the support structure or of the human spine, comprising bone, namely the discs of the vertebrae and intervertebral, whose purpose is to ensure mobility spine different movements and capable of withstanding considerable loads. And there are the intervertebral discs increases with age, particularly the “suffering”: The disc reaches shock absorption capacity, and the back loses a whole more subject to interference, especially in the lumbar region. This process, which can in some normal limits, however, strongly emphasizes both overwork sedentary life. With particular reference to the work activity of this back problem can occur if: • weight lifting, bending or twisting of the back; • You stay long (standing or sitting) in a fixed position; • Place of towing or pushing the activity. the results of the most common spine are: • arthritis peaks (osteoarthritis), or small bony projections that are formed on the edge of the vortex, the responsible local pain. If these projections compress a nerve, that determine the appearance of tingling and pain in the arms or legs as the hands of cervical spondylosis tingling; Sciatica or “sciatica” (inflammation of the sciatic nerve), lumbar osteoarthritis; • acute back pain (LBP), manifested by acute pain, often temporarily immobilize unworthy of an immediate reaction of the muscles and other structures back or overwork caused movements; • herniated disc, which occurs when the central part of the disc, the nucleus pulposus, fiber ring passes around and comes from the disk will compress the nerve. It is often the result of manual manipulation of “overload” .A special mention should be given to changes in the curves of the spine – scoliosis, flat back, kyphosis and lordosis – generally do not work, but instead, can contribute to their presence, “the beginning of musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace. the main risk factors in the workplace for the emergence of the responsibility of the DMS of the spine are numerous, including the so-called” MHL “takes off, all” raise or transport of a load that is or more workers, including lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving a load. “