The remarkable progress in medical and scientific research in the field of HIV / AIDS have allowed the development and availability of many effective drugs against HIV, that have profoundly changed the survival and quality of life of people with HIV .
Although the end of the 80 was available only zidovudine (AZT), which has been used in high and specific relevant side effects dosage, you can now choose from nearly 30 different drugs in suitable combinations. the simultaneous use of two or three different mechanism of action of drugs is highly effective based therapy of anti-retroviral combination (highly active antiretroviral therapy – HAART) that achieves an effective antiviral effect and reduce side effects of medication doses are used relatively low. HAART should be performed daily for a long period and, based on drugs with different mechanisms of action, which is particularly important to take into account the characteristics and tolerability of various drugs used in combination of both drugs used in therapy HAART can be classified into:
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (emtricitabine-FTC, lamivudine, 3TC, AZT-zidovudine, didanosine-DDI, d4T-stavudine, abacavir-ABC);
- Nucleotide analogue reverse inhibitors transcriptase (TDF-TDF);
- Inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (efavirenz-EFV, NVP-nevirapine, etravirine TMC-125);
- Protease inhibitors (tipranavir-TPV-Indinavir IDV, SQV-saquinavir, lopinavir / ritonavir-LPV / r, ritonavir-RTV, darunavir DRV TMC-114-ATV atazanavir, fosamprenavir-FPV, nelfinavir-NFV);
- Fusion inhibitors and entry (ENF-T20 enfuvirtide, maraviroc-MVC);
- integrase inhibitors (raltegravir-RAL).
Every single drug combination therapy is potentially able to determine any side effects to the body burden.
Most side effects are mild in its majority, it is mainly produced in the first days of therapy and tends to decrease over time as a “tends to adjust the effect of drugs body.
Some effects, which can also be moderate or severe, tend to appear over time as a result of metabolic changes induced by drugs.
the occurrence of side effects is not always predictable and is also connected to individual variables.
For this reason, each person may have a different response to drugs, individually or in combination, and treatment should be monitored from the first observation retention times after the first administration. generally they can be distinguished:
- Mild side effects (moderate weakness, rash, urticaria, nausea, diarrhea, headache, muscle aches);
- The moderate side effects (marked weakness, anemia, vomiting, dizziness, neuropathy, tingling and pain in the extremities, mood disorder, somnolence, alopecia, lipid disorders with moderate lipodystrophy);
- Serious side effects (hepatitis, pancreatitis, kidney damage, severe disorders of lipid metabolism).
Fortunately, serious side effects are rare at times and recently developed drugs seem to be tolerated by most people, allowing retention of HAART therapy for many years.
However, in view of the potential risks to the asset of the circulatory system, especially with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in circulation, and possible damage to the liver and kidney function, therapy should be monitored with special care by regular clinical examination evaluation and laboratory tests.
The onset of moderate and severe side effects requires a temporary suspension of treatment with subsequent modification of one or more drugs in combination.
The availability of many different drugs work allows you to “customize” the therapy into account the effectiveness and safety level. The level TARGA single He has allowed us to avoid the onset of AIDS, and to significantly reduce mortality associated with “infection . future goals are to limit as much as possible side effects of medications, allowing acceptance of long-term treatment and a better quality of life of people with HIV ….