Neurology is the medical specialty that deals with diseases of the nervous system and muscles. The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
What are neurological disorders there?
Neurological disorders can be divided into the following groups:
Headaches: Headaches can be a symptom of a serious disease of the brain, how to be a brain tumor. In most cases, however, finds no cause of headaches, called primary headaches. Breads most common headaches are migraine and tension headaches.
Cerebrovascular: More than any other organ in the body depends on continuous oxygen and blood supply to the brain. circulatory disorders of the brain can lead to hemiplegia and language cerebral infarction (stroke) disorders. A similar symptoms can also be caused by a brain hemorrhage. Risk factors that ultimately cause damage to blood vessels in the brain, so the race are the same, which also leads to a heart attack: hypertension, smoking, diabetes, blood lipids and lack ‘exercise.
Infectious diseases of the nervous system: the brain and other organs pathogens, bacteria or viruses, are affected. If you are affected meninges, speaking of meningitis. The brain is directly affected, there encephalitis.
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the brain and the spinal cord, the pathogens can be assigned, but is the result of dysregulation of the immune system. In most cases, multiple sclerosis repeated exacerbations, who change and various symptoms (blurred vision, paralysis, sensory disturbances) lead (RRMS), it happens. a chronic phase with gradual increase in constant transition,The brain can also absiedeln other malignancies metastases.
Neurodegenerative diseases: As a neurodegenerative brain disease Chronic diseases are called, where there is no circulatory disorders or inflammation, which leads to a progressive disorder of certain functions of the brain. A part of this disease is inherited, with most no reason is palpable. disease the most common and important neurodegenerative disease Alzheimer’s disease, which affects the cortex and especially leads to a progressive loss of memory and other mental abilities. In other neurodegenerative disorders are movement disorders in the foreground. In Parkinson’s disease there is a slowness of movement, muscle rigidity and tremors. Typical signs of cerebellar ataxia or degenerative disease is the instability and lack of coordination.
Diseases of the peripheral nervous system: Thanks to an injury or mechanical pressure can cause damage to nerves individual devices. Examples include carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar sulcus. Peripheral nerve diseases are diffuse polyneuropathy committed affects the flame. Polyneuropathy manifested by the frequent appearance in the foot numbness, pain and paralysis. The causes of neuropathy are varied. They are usually caused by diabetes or alcohol abuse.
Muscle disorders: In many neurological disorders causing muscle weakness and atrophy. The reasons may spinal cord and peripheral nervous system in the brain. However, the muscle disease is the real cause directly into the muscle. Many are hereditary myopathies. But there are also muscular diseases such as muscle inflammation (myositis) purchased. In myasthenia gravis, it occurs as a result of inflammatory lesions at transfer points between nerves and muscles (neuromuscular junction) to muscle weakness charge depends.
How diagnosed neurological disorders?
Neurological diagnosis, a detailed study today (history) and neurological examinations play a major role. thorough neurological examination, it is often possible to locate defects in the brain or spinal cord, exactly. In some diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease can be used alone because of the history and clinical examination, reliable diagnostics.In addition to the blood of laboratory tests, the detection of CSF (cerebral fluid or marrow) plays an important role in neurological diagnosis. CSF studies are needed, especially in the diagnosis of the nervous system associated with a pathogen, multiple neuropathies and inflammatory disorders multiple sclerosis. Alcoholic beverages can be seen through a lumbar puncture.In many cases, additional studies necessary for a more accurate diagnosis are needed. These include ultrasound scans of the brain, electrodiagnostic vessels (EEG brainwave bypass; Neurografie: measurement of nerve conduction in the peripheral nervous system; electromyography: Derivation of the electrical activity of muscles, evoked potentials: the extent nerve in the brain and spinal cord conduction; electrooculography: record eye movements) and the autonomous functional diagnosis (control study of blood pressure and heart rate by the nervous system).
Greater each time in the game paper neurological diagnostic imaging. In particular, the conventional radiography, myelography, angiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging are (MRI). These methods are specialized radiologists performed (neuroradiologist).
In some cases, tissue samples diagnosed only by ingestion. For example, brain tumors and certain inflammatory brain (brain tumor), diseases or biopsy. In addition, tissue samples of a leg nerve (Suralisbiopsie) and if samples suspected of affected muscle myopathies (muscle biopsy) in the diagnosis made polyneuropathy. Biopsies are usually performed by neurosurgeons.
How treated neurological diseases?
They considered until the 70 medical specialty neurology last century, although many diseases to diagnose accurately, but the disease could not be treated. This has radically changed. In many neurological diseases therapies are available that have a beneficial impact on the affected patients if used correctly. However, there is still a lot of neurological disorders is not possible to develop effective methods of treatment; neurodegenerative diseases, including several (with the exception of Parkinson’s disease) and many muscle disorders.
Strokes are one of the emergency situations in which treatment began immediately possible. This ensures in a specialized unit stroke (time unit). is now synonymous with multiple sclerosis, a number of drugs available, only that the symptoms are not controlled, but the general course of the disease can be favorably influenced. Brain tumor prognosis has improved due to improved treatment methods. Crucial to the success of treatment is a good collaboration between neurosurgeons, radiologists and neurologists perform certain Hrintumoren chemotherapy. For many other neurological diseases effective drugs are available. This applies, for example, migraine, Parkinson’s disease and myasthenia gravis.